THE CONSIDERATION OF ATTITUDE AND MOTIVES RELATIVE TO LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES IN STUDENTS OF GUILAN UNIVERSITY, IRAN
Nooshing Benar1, Ayoub Behrozi1, Manizheh Mansor Sadeghi1, Mahdi Mohammadi1, Maryam Yosefi2
Guilan University1, Iran
Shomal Amol university2, Iran
Aim: The purpose of this research is consideration of attitude and motives relative to sport activities during leisure times in male and female students of Guilan University.
Material and methods of research: a sample of 200 male and female students of Guilan University that had physical education 1 and 2 in 2011 and spent two sport activities in three times, they were selected as a sample by using classified sampling and answered to LAQ and LMQ questionnaire. For determining validity (specialist views) and reliability (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93, и 0.92 respectively) and SPSS (version 19) were used. For analyzing was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality of data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, repeated measurement test and Spearman test.
Results: The analysis of this research findings indicated that the most important motivation factors for participating students in sport activity in leisure times is mastery/competitive motives, avoidance/ stimulation motives, social motives, cognitive motives. In students, cognitive attitude has had more importance than emotional attitude, however; it wasn't a significant difference in the measure of its use and between two groups of male and female wasn't an observed difference in priority of motivators and their attitude. There was a positive significant relationship between attitude to support activities in students with features such as age, educational term, the number of exercise days. Also, there wasn't a significant relationship among motivation to sporting activities in individuals with features such as age, educational term, the number of exercise days.
Conclusions: Therefore more attentions should be paid to the increasing motivation and attitude through institutionalizing and boosting general awareness of physical fitness.
Key words: leisure, motivation, students, sport, activities.
Аннотация. Ношин Бенар, Айуб Бехрози, Манизхех Мансор Садегхи, Махди Мохаммади, Марям Йосефи. Рассмотрение позиций и мотивов по отношению к досугу у студентов университета Гилян (Иран). Цель: Целью данного исследования является рассмотрение позиций и мотивов по отношению к спортивной деятельности во время отдыха у юношей и девушек студентов университета Гилян.
Материал и методы исследования: выборка из 200 студентов и студенток университета, которые имели ст1 и 2 года стажа занятий по физическому воспитанию в 2011 году и как минимум трижды участвовали в 2 спортивных мероприятиях. Студенты были случайным образом выбраны и отвечали на вопросы анкеты LAQ и LMQ. Для определения валидности и надежности (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93, и 0.92 соответственно) использовалась программа SPSS (версия 19). Для анализа был использован тест Колмогорова-Смирнова для нормального распределения данных, коэффициент корреляции Пирсона, Т-тест, тест Спирмена.
Результаты: Анализ результаты этого исследования показал, что наиболее важными факторами мотивации для участия студентов в спортивной деятельности в свободное время являются: повышение уровня мастерством, соревновательный настрой, социальные мотивы и познавательные мотивы. Установлено, что у студентов познавательное отношение имеет большее значение, чем эмоциональное. Однако, не было выявлено значительных различий в мере их использования и между двумя группами юношей и девушек. Также не обнаружено различий в приоритетных мотивах. Наблюдалась более положительная и значимая взаимосвязь между отношением к поддержке активности у студентов по возрасту, времени обучения, количество упражнений в день.
Выводы: следует больше внимания обратить на повышение мотивации и общей осведомленности о физической подготовке.
Ключевые слова: досуг, мотивации, студенты, спорта, деятельности.
Анотацiя. Ношин Бенар, Айуб Бехрози, Манизхех Мансор Садегхи, Махди Мохаммади, Марям Йосефи. Розгляд позицiй та мотивiв по вiдношенню до дозвiлля у студентiв унiверситету Гилян (Iран). Мета: метою даного дослiдження е розгляд позицiй i мотивiв по вiдношенню до спортивноi дiяльностi пiд час вiдпочинку у юнакiв i дiвчат - студентiв унiверситету Гiлян.
Матерiал i методи дослiдження: вибiрка з 200 студентiв i студенток унiверситету, якi мали 1 i 2 роки стажу занять з фiзичного виховання в 2011 роцi i як мiнiмум тричi брали участь у 2 спортивних заходах. Студенти були випадковим чином обранi й вiдповiдали на запитання анкети LAQ i LMQ. Для визначення валiдностi та надiйностi (Cronbach's Alpha=0.93, i 0.92 вiдповiдно) використовувалася програма SPSS (версiя 19). Для аналiзу був використаний тест Колмогорова-Смирнова для нормального розподiлу даних, коефiцiент кореляцii Пiрсона, Т-тест, тест Спiрмена.
Результати: Аналiз результати цього дослiдження показав, що найбiльш важливими факторами мотивацii для участi студентiв у спортивнiй дiяльностi у вiльний час е: пiдвищення рiвня майстернiстю, змагальний настрiй, соцiальнi мотиви i пiзнавальнi мотиви. Встановлено, що у студентiв пiзнавальне вiдношення мае бiльше значення, нiж емоцiйне. Однак, не було виявлено значних вiдмiнностей у мiру iх використання i мiж двома групами хлопцiв i дiвчат. Також не виявлено вiдмiнностей в прiоритетних мотивах. Спостерiгалася бiльш позитивний i значущий взаемозв'язок мiж ставленням до пiдтримки активностi у студентiв за вiком, часом навчання, кiлькiстю вправ в день.
Висновки: слiд бiльше уваги звернути на пiдвищення мотивацii та загальноi поiнформованостi про фiзичну пiдготовку.
Ключовi слова: дозвiлля, мотивацii, студенти, спорту, дiяльностi.
Nowadays, immobility is one of the features of present life and leisure time has increased because of technology quickly and suitable justification for achieving at the ideal level of physiologic functions is just possible with physical activity. Therefore, human should find ways for increasing his/her physical fitness . We expect individuals who profit by effect of sport activities in a society, they have a positive attitude and motivation relative to it and if a majority of society's individuals has a positive attitude, it is one of strength points in their acceptance in society [2, 3]. On the contrary, if the majority of society's individuals has a negative attitude relative to it, every kind of planning encounter to problem toward their development surely [4, 5]. An attitude that reasons of its great researches in recent years is its known ability in effect on behavior, it is accounted as an indicator of prediction, so that All ports define attitude as a kind of experienced and organized mental fitness which influence on reaction to all matters and dependent situations to attitude directly . According to attitude influence on behavior, the study of attitude to physical activities as the origin of aware behavior for achieving two health goals has much importance  and attainment to individuals' attitude is the best way for recognizing of individuals' participated behavior in national activities . If a teacher is going to design proper programs for youth, he/she should be aware of their attitude, goals and ideas about physical education . In Alderman's ideas, motivation is fitted for selection and leading behavior which is controlled by probable results and continue stability in behavior for gaining to goal .
Motivation is one of the main subjects in sport psychology because the amount of effort and activity of every athlete toward success depends on his/her motivation. The study of motivation and its effect on behavior is research for finding answers to complex questions about the nature of humanity . Motivation means stimulating. It means every behavior which does a living creature is organized and purposeful. In other words, motives are hidden reasons of every behavior which observe from individuals in special conditions and motives are different according to individuals' difference and appearing every behavior needs to motives related to that behavior . More researches have paid to consider leisure time and students' physical activities in the leisure area that we can indicate to Ghaem et al's research (2008) that they described the most important priorities of students for filling leisure times: resting, recreation, studying and sport respectively . Research of Sit and Linder (2006) indicated that 7motivation factors include situation, team/friendly, competition/excitement, skills, and evacuation of energy, physical fitness and situational factors .
Furthermore; the results of Bahram and Shafizadeh research (2004) on students revealed that the most important reasons of students' participation in physical activities are progressing/ambitiousness, skill/fitness, important individuals, group oriented, gaining happiness, evacuation of energy, excitement/challenge and ... . John Sirard et al (2006) entitled motivation factors of participation in sport program for male students: competition, social advantage, physical fitness and for female: social and mastery advantages, competition and physical fitness. Male students are attracted to the competitive aspect of sport, whereas female students are interested to created social opportunities in sport .
Also, Gil et al (1999) research by using participated motivation questionnaire (PMQ), they introduced the most important reasons for participation in sport, improving in skills, recreation, learning new skills, challenging and symmetry . Dastgheib (1998) in a research concluded that with rising age is reduced motor activities and sport in tastes. Moreover; there is a significant relationship between educational level and female sport activity, as if; with rising educational level increases amount of tastes' sport activity. Occupying individuals have less interest to participate in motor and sport activities. Single tastes have more interest than married tastes to motor activities . When individuals have motivation for participating in sport activities, responsible persons have had the ability of participants' needs recognition. According to these cases in this research, the reasons of students' participation in sport activities are dependent to several main factors that they place in motivational subgroups: cognitive motives, social motives, mastery/competitive motives, avoidant/stimulated motives, furthermore; recognition of these motivators and effective factors on them has an important role in the development of students' support. Then, motivation and reasons students' motivation is the best method for increasing participation and amount of their permanent in sport activities.
Therefore; according to present research and other accomplished researches can declare that spending leisure times to proper method influence on young and adolescents' body and soul positively and especially with sport and physical activity and is created correct attitude in them and they benefit from social and personal advantages and it is caused educational progression and success in them.
At last, present research is important for the university community and liable of physical education field because it provides valuable information about amount of attitude and students' tendency toward physical education, sport and sport activities. In fact, this research helps to better perception of sport organization, physical education experts and designers of this area and other hand, university community about amount of attitude and students' tendency toward the sport and quality of spending leisure times and etc. This research wants to represent full information about male and female students' attitude and motivation of Guilan University. As a result, in present research are propounded following questions:
1. Is there significant relationship between attitude and motivation in students of Guilan University?
2. Which one of dimension of attitude (cognitive and emotional) is more important among students and these dimensions are more in male or female?
3. Is there significant relationship between attitude and testers' age?
4. Do gender factors, age, marriage and educational term influence on students' attitude and motivation?
Material and methods of research
This research is descriptive-correlative that it was performed field form. Statistical population is male and female of upper than 19 years old in Guilan University. According to statistical results has been reported statistical population in 90-91 educational year, 3622 people (male=1496, female=2126) approximately. 200people were selected as samples by using random classified sampling with proper allocation.
The measurement instrument for research variables are consist of 1. attitude questionnaire (LAQ) with two micro-scales (cognitive and emotional)and 2. leisure times motivation questionnaire (LMQ) that consists of 4 micro-scales (cognitive, social, mastery/competitive, avoidant/stimulated). For determining validity and reliability of questionnaire, distinction and removing probable ambiguities, preliminary study accomplish on 30 people of research's tests that they were selected from different areas consistently. For determining external and content validity was used specialists’ ideas. Also, for determining reliability was used Cronbach Alpha that its results were for attitude questionnaire (α=0. 93) and motivation (α=0. 92). According to obtained results of Cronbach Alpha can declare that obtained coefficients are acceptable and measurement instruments have good internal compatibility. After providing and collecting questionnaire and determining validity and reliability, 1 and 2 physical education classes were selected coincidently, then questionnaires were given to male and female students that they were passing these units and they exercise in their leisure time activities. To organize, summarize and classifying raw scores was used descriptive statistics and in non-parametric statistics section was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determining to be a normal data distribution, repetitive measurement test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, t-test, Spearman test and SPSS (version 19).
Male (49.7) and female (50.3) constituted the most and the least of volume of statistical sampling. The most and the least of the percentage of individuals belonged to 19-22 year old classification (62.6%) and 25-27 years old (9.1%). 95.8% single and 4.2% married here. The most and the least percent with regard to educational term belonged to term3 (46%) and term 9 (0.5%). Mastery/competitive motivation and avoidant/stimulated motivation were in first and second priority, social and cognitive motivations were in third and fourth priority. They were the most important reasons and motives of participating individuals with motor and sport activities.
The most percentage of individuals proceeded to volleyball, football and swimming respectively during the week more than 3 times (19.5%).
For considering being normal of data distribution was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results reveal dimensions of two questionnaires are normal (P<0.05).
According to be a normal data distribution, for considering the relationship between attitude and motivation subgroups was used Pearson Correlation Coefficient (Table1).
Table1: relationship between attitude and motivation with using Pearson Correlation Coefficient
Significant level P<0/05
Also, according to results of Table 1 was observed that there is direct relationship between attitude and motivation of all students (r=0/663, P<0/05) whereas there is no significant relationship between attitude and motivation to leisure times activities in individuals with different features such as age, educational term, number of exercise days (P<0/05). (Table2)
Table 2: relationship between attitude and motivation with variables of age, educational term, number of exercise days
According to Table 2 can perceive that between motivation and participants' age was observed negative relationship, however; there is no significant relationship between motivation and participants' educational term.
Table3: results of t-test about attitude according to cognitive and emotional dimensions
According to Table 3 and 4 can state that attitude and motivation are more in female and cognitive dimension is more important than the emotional dimension in attitude. Also, importance of cognitive and emotional dimension of attitude and mastery/competitive dimension of motivation and avoidant/stimulated dimension of motivation has been in female more than male, whereas social and the cognitive dimension of motivation is in male more than female. However this difference was not significant.
Table 4: comparison of attitude and motivation and their dimensions in male and female with using t-test
According to Table 5 can state that attitude and motivation and also their dimensions are in single persons more than married people.
Table 5: comparison of attitude and motivation and their dimensions between single and married persons with using t-test
Discussion and Conclusion
In principle, motivation of attaining to happiness is one of mental health criteria in humans. In other hand, the role of sport and motor activities is obvious in creating happiness according to researchers' reports. In Kuper and Smith' s idea, athletes have the emotional stability and high self-confident, they have positive intentions toward self and life and their personality has risen obviously. In present research, mastery/competitive motivation, avoidant/stimulated motivation, social motivation and cognitive motivation devoted the most scores respectively among students that in some factors with results of Sirard et al' s research (2006) which has attained motivational factors such as competition, skillful, social advantages and physical fitness for guidance school students  and Mazarei et al' s research (2006)who reported the most important motivation in male athlete students is improved and learning skills for participating in sport activities  and Shafizade (2006) who declared motivational factors of participation, 7 factors such as fame, progression of skill, interest to friends, evacuation of energy, competition/ excitement and famous persons  and in Zahariadis and Biddle' s research (2000), a guidance school students, these factors were ambitiousness, progression of skill, evacuation of energy, team climate, finding friend, happiness and physical fitness  and Sit and Lindner' s research (2006) indicated 7 motivation factors: situation, team/ friendly, competition/ excitement, skill, evacuation of energy, physical fitness  and Cheung sin-yin (2000) reported the most important motives in Hong-Kong athletes: important skills, entertainment, team climate, relationships and finding friend , Ates, Cagatay (2009), Yan Mcullagh (2004) and Bagheri (2005) have justification [22, 23, 24].
But, these results in Kilpatrick's research which has stated the most important factor of student sport motivators is enjoying and attainment of beneficial  and Linxuan (2004) introduce social factors as the most important factor of motivators  don't have justification. In this section, it seems cultural and tribal features are reason of difference among the most important motivators that it needs more research.
Also, the results of the present research indicated that there is no significant relationship between motivation and attitude to activities related to leisure times in individuals with different features such as age, educational term and number of exercise days that result of this research didn't have justification with Medic et al’s results (2004). In Medic et al’s research with the title of "The effect of athletes' knowledge on motivation of exercise" have stated that male athlete students have higher levels of interjected adjustment than female athlete non-students and they have had higher levels of external adjustment than female athlete students and all athletes non-students  and Buonamano, Mussiono (1995) have considered in a research participation motives in recreational and sport activities in Italian young persons. The results indicated that motivation factors are consist of attainment of victory, increasing fitness and physical skills, reward, membership in the team, attainment of happiness and evacuation of energy and also it was observed that motivational factors of participation are different in basis on age, gender, kind of sport, parents' educational level and geographical situation .
Attarzadeh, Hasaniet al (2007) observed a significant difference between the attitude to sport and motor activities in individuals with different features such as age, to be married, number of family members, kind of job, tendency and intendancy to sport and motor activities that this case didn't have justification with research results  and the other hand, it is accordance with results of Zarei's research (2001)based on the lack of a significant relationship between individuals' education level and tend to sport and motor activities .
The present research findings didn't indicate significant differences between the attitude to sport and motor activities in individuals with different features such as age. The obtained results in this research with Silverman and Subramaniam's findings (1999) don't have justification. They had stated that younger students have a more positive attitude to sport and physical education than older and higher students . Also, the process of decreasing positive attitude with increasing age has been observed in Arabaci's research .
Rajmond (2008) indicated new high school students have a more positive attitude than final year high school students .Al-liheibi (2008) with consideration of high school and guidance school students' attitude in Arabia indicated that factors such as grade of the class, student's age, skill levels, gender, activities, time and etc. are effective on students' attitude toward sport and physical education . Findings reveal that there is no difference in motivators between male and female that these results are in direction of Shapoora (2003), Siavashani et al (2010) and Wilson et al (2005) findings [35, 36, 37], but Medic et al (2004) and Barton (2009) findings has indicated difference between motivational factor in female and male [27, 38]. Then, the results revealed there is a difference in attitude between female and male that these results are similar to Suminski et al results (2002) which found male students' attitude is more than female students about participation in sport activities and they are in a better position in view of health . Although, in other studies used for different research instrument but they stated the same attitude toward physical education and sport between male and female. Earl et al (1987) reported there is a little difference between male and female attitude toward physical education and sport . Therefore, it may interfere several potential factors in difference between male and female in factor of motivation and attitude. Perhaps, one of the reasons comes back to the limitations which are for girls and it can increase immobility in them or cultural and tribal features are caused the difference between the most important motivators. It seems family's protection from girls' sport activities in comparison with boys is less for religious matters. Akrami (1994) indicated that 75% boys are encouraged to sport activities by families that this rate was 30% for girls  which is a need for more research. According to this matter can state that parents have an important role in the development of their children's attitude and motivation toward physical activity.
In the next section, findings indicate that there is a difference between single and married persons in attitude and motivation and also some their dimensions. Therefore, we can conclude that single persons have more free time before marriage for participating in sport activities and have positive motivation for going on these activities or they are in higher level from the point of view cultural and mental level.
According to attitude has pointing to awareness and perception of individuals from situations, therefore can point that however level of knowledge and awareness and perception of society's individuals promote, their attitude will be better toward social matters. Although this case is a positive advantage for educated individuals but in other hand more management and important responsibilities are given to educate individuals. Then, we expect that this matter isn't an excuse for withdrawing motor programs and physical activities, because in every country even Iran, if managers have a positive attitude to sport and motor activities, surely this kind of attitude is created in them by participating in sport activities and it can be effective in the development of country's sport.
It is natural that students who don't have social responsibilities yet and they have less relationship with others except their coeval, and then they have weaker attitude toward sport and motor activities. Perhaps, positive attitude of staffs and others, on the one hand because of social and employee experience is its reason and other hand, their education level that it is effective directly and indirectly in their attitude. Of course, if the majority of people accept that movement and sport activity should be part of their life program, age and job shouldn't create change in their attitude. Specially, we expect that students and university students have stronger attitudes toward sport and motor activities and this is involvement of having enough facilities and equipment for these individuals for participating in sport activities.
For this reason can state that one of the important factor for development of participation in sport is presence of sport places and installations. Perhaps, if sport facilities and instrument is provided with high quality and inaccessible for students, it can caused their participation in other various activities and creating opportunity for learning new skills until students use from social advantages, for example creating opportunity for developing friendships, improving social skills, decreasing seclusion and behaviors of against social, cultural and tribal agreement.
For developing sport can use media that TV programs constitute the most important individuals' leisure activity. Also, creating and developing sport areas in university and use music in sport saloons can be effective. Since the difference in the quality of spending students' leisure time can attribute to cultural difference, social limitations and individuals' interest, it seems every manner of managers' decision for filling students' leisure time should be accomplished according to students' interest and their cultural and social texture. It is suggested that managers provide conditions which pay students to sport activities for growing mental-physical and reducing stress and anxiety instead of paying to inactive activities for example watching TV.
For discussion and consideration of research findings and its conformity with some researches which have been done in this field, we can conclude that the findings of this research have justification with other research findings. Perhaps, presence of difference among some findings is due to social and cultural special features, age, gender and educational level and geographical situation in different societies that researchers have been accomplished in it.
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Information about the authors:
Manizheh Mansor Sadeghi
Came to edition 13.02.2013.
Информация об авторах:
Манизхех Мансор Садегхи
Поступила в редакцию 13.02.2013г.
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