THE CONSIDERATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ABILITIES IN EVENT VOLUNTEERS
R. Andam1, N. Benar2, M.Aliabadi1, M. Yousefi3 , A.Ghorbanian3, K.Danesh Sani2
Shahrood University of Technology1, Iran.
Guilan University2, Rasht, Iran.
Shomal University3, Iran
The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80).
The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01).
Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers.
Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport.
According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers) under his management.
At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.
Key words: volunteers, emotional, intelligence, sport, events.
Аннотация. Андам Р., Бенар Н., Алиабади М., Юсефи М., Гхорбаниан А., Данеш Сани К. Анализ эмоциональных интеллектуальных способностей в соревнованиях добровольцев. Измерения эмоциональных интеллектуальных способностей является одним из новых и важных предметов в исследованиях поведения человека. По этому вопросу, целью данного исследования является рассмотрение эмоциональных интеллектуальных способностей в национальных спортивных соревнованиях добровольцев в 2011 году. Для этой цели был использован стандартный опросник Брэдбери и Круза. В исследовании принимали участие 80 добровольцев (n=80). Результаты показали, что 4 уровня эмоционального интеллекта у добровольцев были достоверно выше среднего (p<0.01). Кроме того установлено, что приоритетным в эмоциональных интеллектуальных способностях является самосознание и социальная осведомленность. Взаимосвязь управления и самоуправления являются вторым, третьим и четвертым приоритетом у добровольцев. Наконец, на основе параметров установлено, что нет никакой разницы между эмоциональным интеллектом мужчин и женщин, которые участвуют в первой Олимпиаде национального спорта. По результатам настоящего исследования рекомендуется обращать преимущественное внимание на эмоциональный интеллект и поведение человека в организации. Рекомендуется руководителям спортивных мероприятий быть более чувствительными по отношению к способностям человека, а также учитывать проявление способностей как ресурс человека. По крайней мере, результатом этого исследования в студенческом спорте является подбор и интеллектуальное, умственное развитие мотивированных добровольцев для непрерывного участия в спортивных мероприятиях.
Ключевые слова: добровольцы, эмоциональный, интеллект, спорт, события.
Анотацiя. Андам Р., Бенар Н., Алiабадi М., Юсефi М., Гхорбанiан А., Данеш Санi К. Аналiз емоцiйних iнтелектуальних здiбностей в змаганнях добровольцiв.Вимiри емоцiйних iнтелектуальних здiбностей е одним з нових i важливих предметiв в дослiдженнях поведiнки людини. З цього питання, метою даного дослiдження е розгляд емоцiйних iнтелектуальних здiбностей в нацiональних спортивних змаганнях добровольцiв в 2011 роцi. Для цiеi мети був використаний стандартний опитувальник Бредберi i Круза. У дослiдженнi брали участь 80 добровольцiв (n=80). Результати показали, що 4 рiвнi емоцiйного iнтелекту у добровольцiв були достовiрно вище середнього (p<0.01). Крiм того встановлено, що прiоритетною в емоцiйних iнтелектуальних здiбностях е самосвiдомiсть i соцiальна обiзнанiсть. Взаемозв'язок управлiння i самоврядностi е другим, третiм i четвертим прiоритетом у добровольцiв. Нарештi, на основi параметрiв встановлено, що немае нiякоi рiзницi мiж емоцiйним iнтелектом чоловiкiв i жiнок, якi беруть участь в першiй Олiмпiадi нацiонального спорту. За результатами справжнього дослiдження рекомендуеться звертати переважну увагу на емоцiйний iнтелект i поведiнку людини в органiзацii. Рекомендуеться керiвникам спортивних заходiв бути чутливiшими по вiдношенню до здiбностей людини, а також враховувати прояв здiбностей як ресурс людини. Принаймнi, результатом цього дослiдження в студентському спортi е пiдбiр i iнтелектуальний, розумовий розвиток мотивованих добровольцiв для безперервноi участi в спортивних заходах.
Ключовi слова: добровольцi, емоцiйний, iнтелект, спорт, подii.
In process of formation of organizations and society, human resources have main role that for this purpose can suppose it as essences of each organization. Part of human resources is consist of volunteers who can be effective in development of organization goals and society .
However, sport is one of the sector which benefit volunteers attendance. Geraten et al (1997) have defined sport volunteers to this way: individual who activate without award or income in formal sport organization such as clubs or governmental committee in sport .
According to role which state for attending volunteers in events, general attention to their problems have much importance such as psychological, social, cultural features and etc.
Meanwhile; it hasn't been considered to emotional intelligence in psychological of human behavior up to now.
In this basis, concept of emotional intelligence was titled by Solovey and Mayer for the first time in 1990. It states "emotional intelligence is kind of emotional intelligence process which is consist of true assessment from emotions in himself / herself and others, suitable exposure from emotions and its justified regulation".
Attention to emotions and their suitable application in human relations, understanding his/her emotions and others and their management, empathy with others and positive usage from emotions are subjects which was introduced in past decade as title of emotional intelligence and can search its background in Wechsler ideas that he believed there is intelligent factors in addition to special unintelligent factors that it can determine intelligent behaviors..
Professors, emotional intelligence have defined according to features and its applications in following: bar-on (1997) introduce emotional intelligence as group of skills, talents and non-cognitive abilities that increase individual success against environmental stresses and situations. In fact, emotional intelligence is used for help yourself and help others .
In 1998, Goleman stated "emotional intelligence is indicator ability of ideal management of behavior, mental situation and control of tensions and it is factor which create motivation and hope in people when they don't achieve to goal".
In this theory, emotional intelligence has been constituted four main skills that are:
A) self- awareness: it is ability in exact recognition from emotions and awareness about them at the time of creation. Self-awareness is control of desires in response to different people and situations, too.
B) self- management: It is ability in applying awareness from emotions for being flexible and leading behaviors positively, it means that you can control your emotional reactions toward people and different conditions and think before doing every work.
C) Social awareness: It is recognition of people's emotions and how encounter to their emotional reactions and what is happening even when individual don't have the same feeling and meditations.
D) relation management: it is ability in applying awareness of people's emotions for success in control and interactions management. In Goleman's idea, emotional intelligence is skill which individual can control his/her morals by self- awareness and improve it by self-management, perceive their effect by empathy and promote his/her morale and others by relation management.
Therefore; emotional intelligence indicates why two people with as IQ as may achieve to different grade of success in life and main element is human behavior that act different from IQ.
Researches show that all life success depends on 20% IQ and 80% emotional intelligence.
Gender difference is effective in emotional intelligence. Stain studied on 4500 male and 3200 female and it recognized that female acquire higher score than male in empathy and social responsibility, however , male have higher endurance and self -confidence that female against mental stress. In other words, they are same about emotional intelligence but each of them react stronger in some fields .
There for individuals interact with each other in every situation. If they want to have ideal productivity and good performance and achieve to their goal by cooperating to others, they must be equipped to technical abilities and special characteristic which is called emotional intelligence generally. Because, these abilities make individual awareness, calm, respective, supportive, listener, replier, explainer and acceptor. 
Gardner and Stough (2003) indicated in study with title "consideration of relationship between emotional intelligence in office, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Swinburn university in USA that emotional intelligence is benefit predictor for job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also, emotional intelligence has relationship with job satisfaction and organizational commitment .
Besharat (2005) considers the effect of emotional intelligence on social relationship quality and found that there is significant negative correlation between emotional intelligence and students' interpersonal problem such as decisiveness, sincerity, responsibility and civility. Emotional intelligence decrease interpersonal problems with strengthening of mental health, empathy with others, social compatibility, emotional rehabilitation and satisfaction of life and it provides background of social relationship improvement .
Roblyer (2008) found that there is significant and positive relationship between emotional intelligence and group performance and also between emotional intelligence and group learning.
Othman and Anugerah (2009) in research with title '' The consideration of relationship commitment and job success '' and inter mediator role of commitment in relation to emotional intelligence and job success conclude that (1) individuals who have high emotional intelligence, have more commitment than to his/she job, (2) commitment predict job satisfaction and (3) commitment is inter mediator of relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction .
Solanki and Lane (2010) concluded that there is significant relationship between emotional intelligence and sport as strategy of controlling on feelings.
Also, findings indicated that individuals who use sport for promoting emotional manners, they have higher emotional intelligence . Finally, Ghoniem et al (2011) found that staffs who have high emotional intelligence, they are satisfier than their work. Also, results indicate: a) there is no significant relationship between gender and job satisfaction. b) there is significant relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and finally c) The combination of emotional intelligence and gender influences on job satisfaction .
Since in management of countries sport especially in holding majority of sport events, lack of human resource is one of main problems for managers, using volunteers forces can influence on fading problems and holding better sport events. As researches has indicated that young's desire to volunteering in activities and short-time projects and in opposite middle-aged desire to long-time activities and works which have more commitment . Also, participation in volunteering activities raise self-confidence in individuals and make them away from disturbance and life stresses .
The lack of awareness of volunteers wills or ignoring requirements and manner of behavior with them can take in calamity for development and recruitment of volunteer resources, efficiency of sport organization or performing special sport event. Since volunteer could find special situation for themselves in structure of sport organizations nowadays, therefore; it expects from sport events managers that they accomplish tasks which require for sport event and support volunteers. It is important that consider to demography characteristic and behavioral subjects such as their emotional intelligence clearly.
According to this matter that true management and exact perception of volunteers works in sport is primary principles in support and treat in volunteers, therefore; it is important that recognize factors which result to better management in them. In present study, researcher follows to consider levels of volunteers' emotional intelligence who participate in sport events until in this method, they perceive better behavior in them which result to continuous attendance volunteers in events.
The present research is descriptive and field form and with using Bradbury and cruise emotional intelligence standard questionnaire (2004) was considered to measurement of emotional intelligence abilities in event's volunteers.
This questionnaire is standard and its validity and reliability has been measured by Ganji (2005 ) and was used by Naderi (2007 ), too. The statistical population are all volunteers (n=80) who participated in public sport first Olympia of country university's students in Ardabil (Female) and Ilam (male) that because of limitation society volume, all of them were statistical samples.
In this research participate 38 female and 42 male that 8 people were physical education standard and 72 people were other fields.
Therefore; after providing full list of participated volunteers in mentioned events and coordinating to their chief questionnaires distributed and finally they were given back, the research instrument was two part. In first part was asked volunteers demography in formation (age, gender, marriage situation, educational level and job record). In second part, questionnaires was consist of 28 question which was scored on 5- point Likert scale, A score of 1 allocated to never choice and score of 5 allocated to always choice and 4 basis skills measure self- awareness (1 to 5), self-management (6 to 15) , social awareness (16 to 20), and relation management (21 to 28). In this way, for determining validity was used to help 11 professor in this field , then for determining reliability was done a primary study (completing questionnaires by 30 people in mentioned events) and reliability coefficient gained by Cronbach Alpha ( a =0/76) that is indicator of measurement instrument constancy.
At last, for analyzing main findings of study after describing findings by central limitation and variance was Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determining to be normal data distribution and t-test for determining significance each of abilities and their ranking. All analysis was done by SPSS software (version 17).
The findings related to completors' demography indicated that 47.5% of volunteers were male and 52.5% of them were female. On basis of age levels, 58.5% were 20 to 22 years old and 96.6% were single. On basis of job record, 73.3% had record lower than 1 year. Also, more than 83.8% had licentiate's degree, 2.5% diploma and 13.8% MSC and higher .
Table1 is indicator of mean, standard deviation, significance value related to be normal test of data distribution and significance value related to consider emotional intelligence abilities in volunteers.
Table1: result of emotional intelligence levels test in volunteers
p > 0.05*: considerable data distribution is normal
p < 0.01**: considerable levels rate is higher than test value significantly
As is considered , all 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than t-test significantly(p<0.01).
In present research, for considering difference of emotional in volunteers with each other was used Fridman variance test.
The result of test indicated that there is significant difference in 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers (p<0.001).
Also, self- awareness is first priority and social awareness. Relation management and self-management are second priorities to forth in volunteers (table2).
Table 2. results of Fridman test for comparing emotional intelligence levels in volunteers and their ranking
Also, for comparing emotional intelligence levels in volunteers on basis of their genders was used t-test in two independent groups that their results has been presented in table 3.
Table3:compared test of emotional intelligence levels n volunteers in basis on gender.
As T parameter indicates there is no significant difference among participator volunteers in public sport Olympia on basis of gender.
Discussion and Conclusion
Since emotional intelligence and its abilities are important elements in human behavior of dynamic and changing organizations and also sport organizations, as a result; purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence levels in present volunteers in public sport events in 2012. According to this matter, it is necessary which emotional intelligence is high in volunteers not only in view of social participation. Belonging to society and ability doing responsibilities but also in view of mental health and recognizing individual talents, it is structure which influences on these individuals life styles in society.
Therefore, attention to emotional intelligence and its reinforcement in volunteers' sport events addition to fade their problems, it creates opportunity until individual could use from all their abilities for aware encounter with situation.
The related findings to demography results showed that participated percentage of female students' volunteers is more than men that this matter is indicator of more desire in females for participating in voluntary activates. The research findings showed that gender distribution in present volunteers is in accordance with Keunsu (2007), Poorsoltani et al; (2011) and Ramzaninezhad et al (2011) research and it doesn't have justification with Yung (2010) [16, 23, 24, 33].
Judge et al (2002) declared that females enjoy voluntary more because of more social interaction. In fact, people who are extrovert, they enjoy voluntary more .
Researches indicate that males volunteer more than females in social sports and females participate in sport events as a volunteer.
In other hand can state that females volunteer more than males because of participation and social commitment, gaining opportunity for exposure and learning. According to these findings can state that managers can perceive better their needs and interests by informing volunteer’ gender distribution in planning time for recruitment and try to satisfy them. Also, result indicated that more present volunteer and are educational people who have licentiate degree (83.8%). That is in accordance with Keunsu (2007), Strigas (2008) and Moharamzadeh (2008) research results [18.18.20]. According to in holding sport events especially students event, we need to different committee with various tasks, it is necessary that managers use experts and students as one of the most important resources of these committees’ provider in necessary cases for holding better.
In many jobs, emotional intelligence has important role in job opportunities, job skills and necessary talents and quality of success in job. Every job need to special level of emotional intelligence. Some jobs don’t need to high emotional intelligence. These jobs focus on doing task. Therefore; individuals who have high emotional intelligence, they aren’t successful in these jobs. In opposites in some jobs, individuals should do their tasks with empathy and effective relationship with others and constitute work teams. These jobs need to high emotional intelligence. It seems present volunteers in sport events are individuals who need to high emotional intelligence.
In basis on findings, more volunteers in students event (73.3%) have voluntary record less than 1 year that is accordance with Poorsoltani et al (2010)research results and isn’t accordance with Yang results (2010).
Perhaps, the reason of non-justification is because of duty of country universities in students public sport event for first time and other important sport event doesn’t hold in that place, therefore; volunteers have no experience except experience of attendance in students Olympia. However, to volunteer managers of sport events as a volunteer before thinking about their recruitment in design process, instruction, organization and volunteers’ reward strategy and also consider to demography variables.
The results of priority of emotional intelligence options on the basis of mean Ranks indicated that self-awareness and social-awareness levels are the most important and in opposite, relation management and self management are the least important cases that Friedman test results confirm correctness of findings. On this basis should point that volunteers emotional intelligence abilities is in ideal level. This matter is indicator of suitable environment for volunteer’s activities in present event. This finding is justification with Babayi’s results (2006) and is non- justification with Rezaian’s results (2008), Babayi (2006) in this research indicated that among emotional intelligence dimensions, manager’s self- awareness and social-awareness have the most effect on organizational climate.
According to Goleman’s declaration could explain reason of this matter that awareness in main center of skills(such as social relationship, social skills...) because emotional intelligence is begun since effective and correct information is entered to perceptional system. Moreover; Rezaian (2008) point that relation management have the most importance in emotional intelligence and this matter creates good feeling about individuals attendance in organization and finally it streng them cooperation and assistance (3, 25).
Therefore; it seems that volunteer who have high level of social skills, they can use of this factor for suitable reaction, perception of differences, group work ability of conversation and connection and mediation. For this purpose, sport events managers can provide conditions for developing emotional intelligence and positive emotions in sport organizations climate and increase participation and assistance in volunteers and improve efficiency rate.
It is mentionable that nowadays in lot of world large events, there is respect to others instruction classes and social skills instruction for volunteer that this project provides background for reinforcing emotional intelligence skills. Moreover, in basis of performed researches, subject of emotional intelligence and its abilities is as internal factor, changeable, effective on performance of problem solving that can help to person in direction of stress management in conditions of encounter with problems.
Since consideration of recognition of emotional intelligence is new subject and has been proved its high relation with success in life, as a result cat state that sport events volunteers could raise social interaction and valuable felling for event managers with participation in holding events and also they could increase emotional intelligence rate and many related abilities in themselves which are success important elements in life.
The present research results indicated that that is no significant difference between emotional intelligence in male and female volunteers.
According to research background may be state that for rising emotional intelligence must be instruct these skills step by step, therefore; presented instructions must be related to this matter and its promotion ways. Moreover; these skill are presentable in every age and gender. However; having special age and gender can’t just be important factor in increasing and deceasing emotional intelligence.
These findings is accordance with Rostami’ results(2003) and isn’t accordance with lajverdi (2008) , Egly and Johson(1990), Guastello(2003), shwuming (2004) and Banihashemian et al(2010) results[26, 17, 7, 12, 28, 4].
As Barron’s declaration (2000), however; males and females have no much difference in emotional perception, females have higher scores in abilities such as empathy and interpersonal and social relationship.
In opposite, males have higher scores in realistic, claim, tolerance, stress, immediate control and compatibility. Lajverdi results (2008) titled that females have higher self-awareness and present better services and also they have higher social skills and are more compatible with others progress . Egly and Johnson (1990) indicated that females have higher skills than males and females have more desire to be have friendly. Since empathy, supportive behaviors, excitement control, emotional flexibility and evaluation of her excitement and others is generic characteristic in females.
These generic characteristic is caused to be emotional intelligence in females more than males. According to accomplished researches can state than sport events have created climate which is presented voluntary services away from generic differences. And these services have no special and considerable reward, thus it hasn’t been observed differences in volunteers’ emotional intelligence abilities. But it seems that expectations of sport events managers from volunteers has been resulted to exposure of same behaviors. In any case, com formation of this claim requires to more researches.
Using volunteers is growing in country sport. Moreover; one of the most important method of recruitment and maintenance of this group is awareness of human behavior with volunteers. As mentioned, measurement of intelligence has much importance in these individuals for management and organizing better for sport events. Hence, sport events managers should know motives and emotional intelligence resources before inviting and recruiting of volunteers finally, a few amount of samples, Lack of control effective variables on emotional intelligence such as social, economical, family and personal factors Create limitations in case of generalization of findings that we must consider to them.
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Information about the authors:
Asieh Ghorbanian Rajabi
Kazem Danesh Sani
Came to edition 31.05.2012.
Информация об авторах:
п/я: 1841, Решт, Иран.
Шахроод Университет Технологий
п/я: 3619995161-316, Шахроод, Иран.
п/я: 731, Амол, Мазандаран, Иран.
п/я: 1841, Решт, Иран.
Данеш Сани К.
п/я: 1841, Решт, Иран.
Поступила в редакцию 31.05.2012г.
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